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Friday, January 16, 2015

Overgrazing and land degradation;

Overgrazing negative effects;

Overgrazing causes and effects;

Overgrazing meaning: the process of overgrazing can occur by continuous grazing without control or planning of livestock grazes, which means having too many animals on the farms and not properly controlling their grazing activities, it is a destroying environment factor.

Overgrazing effects:

1.    Overgrazing decreases palatable plant leaf areas that reduces interception of sunlight and plant growth;
2.    Plants become weakened and have reduced root length, and then the pasture sod can be broken, as in many locales overgrazing results in increased sod vigor dominated by unpalatable grasses, while the reduced root length makes the plants more susceptible to death in the dry weather periods and weakened sod allows weed seeds to germinate and grow.

Overgrazing facts:

1.    Indicators;
2.    One indicator of overgrazing is that the animals run short of pasture faster;
3.    In many places, particularly in the Sahel zones under continuous grazing overgrazed pastures are predominated by shorter grass species than usual in the grazed areas;
4.    Soil may be visible between plants in the standard, allowing erosion to occur.

Rotational overgrazing:

1.    Under rotational grazing, overgrazed plants do not have enough time to grow to the proper height and size between grazing events;
2.    The animals are turned into a paddock before the plants have restored carbohydrate reserves, and grown back roots lost after the last defoliation;
3.    It is the same as under continuous grazing;
4.    The tall growing species die while the short growing species are more subject to drought injury predominated pasture.

Overgrazing by livestock:

1.    Another indicator of overgrazing is that livestock run out of pasture, and hay needs to be fed earlier than usual;
2.    But it is to note that most areas of world do not experience the same climate regime and hay feeding is not conducted the same way.

Overgrazing by domestic animals:

1.    Overgrazing is also indicated in livestock performances and behaves;
2.    Cows having inadequate pasture immediately following their calves’ weaning and that result in having poor body condition the following season;
3.    This obviously reduces the health and vigor of cows and calves at calving;
4.    Cows in poor body condition do not cycle as soon after calving, which results in delayed breeding because of long calving season;
5.    Poor weaning weight of calves can be caused by insufficient pasture when cows give less milk and calves need pasture to maintain weight gain.

Overgrazing consequences:

1.    Ecological impacts;
2.    Overgrazing typically increases soil erosion;
3.    Reduces in soil depth, soil organic matter and soil fertility that impair and damage the land’s future natural and agricultural productivity;
4.    The loss of soil depth is critical in determining the soil’s water holding capacity and how well pasture plants do during dry weather.

Overgrazing problems:

1.    One of the big problems is how to combat the overgrazing;
2.    And to plan for sustainable grazing where the plants could have time to renew and grow faithfully.
The Main Aim◄►Health For All ☼ Clean Environment

Big luck