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Sunday, September 28, 2014

What is sickle cell anemia?

What are the types of abnormal hemoglobin?

How sickle cell is distributed in the world?

Sickle cells anemia is an inherited blood disease that attacks red blood cells and then deforms them.
  • Characteristics of sickle cell disease
1.    Under normal circumstances these cells have a circular shape slightly flattened like a coin;
2.    A cubic millimeter of blood contains an average of four and half to five million red blood cells;
3.    In the red blood cell it is found a nitrogenous substance called hemoglobin, which has the property of binding the oxygen in the air we breathe and circulate it throughout the body by flowing through the vessels, even the finest;
4.    Normal hemoglobin is called hemoglobin A;
5.    Abnormal hemoglobin may appear in the blood by mutation or sudden change in the chain of constituent amino acids, which makes it unstable cell.
  • Types of abnormal hemoglobin’s
1.    There are various types of abnormal hemoglobin, S, C, E, D, etc. 
2.    All cells that consist of ninety to ninety-five percent by abnormal hemoglobin will be deformed in different ways to favor certain circumstances, including lack of oxygen;
3.    They take the shape of a crescent moon, hence the term sickle;
4.    The deformed cells called sickle cells lose their elasticity, adopt a rigid structure and pass more difficulty into the fine vessels of certain organs such as the lungs, eyes, brain;
5.    Where they get stuck and form plugs that cause pain and disorders of varying severity, as coronary and cerebral vascular accident;
6.    The destruction of altered or aging cells by spleen causes anemia.
  • Origin and distribution of sickle cell disease
1.    Today this disease is a major cause of infant mortality, especially in black Africa, since it is estimated that eighty-five percent of children attacked die before four years;
2.    The inheritance of sickle cell disease explains its steady growth and expansion that will dramatically continue with future generations;
3.    Estimated at more than sixty million transmitters’ subjects are very numerous, especially in the tropics between the 15th parallel north and the 20th parallel south;
4.    In black Africa, particularly Western and Equatorial zones, it affects twenty to thirty percent of the population;
5.    Although this disease is common in black and mulatto communities of North and South America, the Caribbean and in South India, but it is also found in Greece, Turkey, Iran, Saudi Arabia and other white nations;
6.    Basically it is found that the environment where malaria is endemic is one in which the sickle rampant, and most carriers of abnormal cells S resist malaria;
7.    This has a serious impact on the spread of sickle cell disease.

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