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Saturday, May 19, 2012

Causes of administrative corruption;

Administrative corruption, The Main Types, Causes, Economical impact, Political impact, Social impact; 

The consequences of widespread corruption;

How does corruption affect the countries economics?

Administrative corruption in simple term is an abuse of power for private gain. But corruption always does not mean the same thing or have the same impact or motivation. In general, the corruption is designated as the phenomenon by which a public officer is driven to act differently from the normative standards of the system to favor special interests in exchange for reward. Therefore corrupt is the behavior deviated from the one who occupies a role in the state structure. Corruption is a type of influence, unlawful, illegal, and illegitimate. 

The Main Types of Corruption

There are two different categories of administrative corruption.

The first type of corruption:   

Occurs when corrupt acts committed in accordance with the rules, which is when an officer is receiving a benefit from an individual by doing something he should do as provided by law. The corruption in accordance with the law can occur at all levels of government because the officer is not willing to do his jobs unless he gets a bribe or profit.

The second type of corruption:  

is when the operations are carried out against the rules that are to obtain services which the staff member is prohibited from providing.

The causes of corruption

It is possible to appoint three main causes that enable the emergence of corruption and may occur in different degrees in any state.

The first is formal causes

It is the lack of clear demarcation and distinguishing between public and private, the existence of an inadequate legal system and national realty, the practical ineffectiveness of public institutions.

The second is cultural causes

Cultural causes refer to the political culture of a country, it is the set of attitudes, norms and beliefs shared by citizens and have a political phenomenon as an object, cultural conditions can delineate the extent of corrupt practices, the probability to occur and the degree of social tolerance that can be drawn. There are many basic cultural conditions that bring to corrupt. 

The phenomenon

The existence of a broad social tolerance for the enjoyment of private privileges, allows a prevailing of private profit of civic morality. The existences of widespread culture of illegality or reduced social groups, who know that the law is not in their favor, encourage corruption and social tolerance towards it.

The third is material causes

Material causes are related to specific situations that give rise to corrupt practices. The situations of this case are the various gaps between the legal and social order, and the gaps between the real needs of political control and the formal conditions of exercise of power and etc.

The impact of Corruption

Corruption affects all fields and domains in the country.  

The economic impact

Corruption increases the cost of goods and services, increases the debt of the country that may involve the future recurrent costs and leads to the relaxation of standards, which means as to purchase goods that do not meet established standards or inappropriate or unnecessary technology and may be less useful from the standpoint of development. When a country increases its debt to carry out projects that are not economically viable, the additional debt includes not only extra cost due to corruption, but the investment will be unproductive.

The political impact

Corruption can be measured through various items. Corruption reproduces social inequality and protects the networks of complicity between the political and economical actors, and consolidates the political clientele and keeps working to control illegal instrument. Corruption perpetuates the inefficiency of the bureaucracy and generates parasitic forms of intermediation in the administrative apparatus. All these leads to loss of credibility in the state and the erosion of the legitimacy needed for proper deal.

The social impact

Corruption accentuates social differences by reducing the roles of the state in mediating the demands of different groups and increases poverty among the population. The major classes of the population are marginalized and subjected to a process of political exclusion, therefore they would be taken away from the formal system and forced informally to access their livelihoods.   

The consequences of widespread corruption

Corruption destroys professionalism and confidence. In widespread corruption system, the bribe interests are replacing the professional criteria and increasing the segregation and discourage honest. 
Basic development!

Big luck