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Tuesday, October 22, 2013

What is hernia and how to deal it;

What are the types of hernia?

 How to deal or repair hernia?

 What are hernia diseases?

Hernia is the protrusion of any organ or tissue or other body structure from its normal cavity through the ruptured wall that contains it. This usually refers to an abdominal hernia, which may be congenital disorder or acquired after birth.

Types of hernia:

1.    Tissue may protrude through the abdominal muscle at the groin that leads to inguinal hernia.
2.    Or at upper thigh that leads to femoral hernia.
3.    Or at navel that leads to umbilical hernia. Hernia’s circulation can cut off, leading to inflammation, infection and gangrene. If the tissue cannot be pushed back into place and kept there by a truss, surgery may be necessary.

Other common hernias are:

1.    Hiatal hernias, which are the protrusion of part or all of the stomach above the diaphragm.
2.    And also the herniated disk that is the protrusion of tissue from a disk in the vertebral column through its outer layer.

Possible organ for hernia

Various organs may be involved, including the bladder, brain, esophagus, intestine, ovary and rectum. The most common location for a hernia bulge to appear is the abdominal wall, particularly the groin.

Cerebral hernia

Among the most infrequent but life-threatening hernias is the cerebral hernia in which part of the brain protrudes through an opening in the skull.

Diaphragmatic hernia

This type of hernia occurs when a defect is present in the muscular diaphragm separating chest from abdomen, may be present at birth or result from an injury later in life. Abdominal organs, such as liver, spleen, stomach, and intestine, can pass through the diaphragmatic defect and lodge in the chest cavity, so that the lungs become compressed and then leads to impaired breathing.

Hiatal or esophageal hernia

Hiatal hernia results when a portion of the stomach slides into the chest cavity through the normal diaphragmatic opening for the esophagus.

Groin hernias

Groin hernia consist of two major types, the inguinal hernia and femoral hernia. Inguinal hernias account for seventy five percent of all hernias of the body, the inguinal hernia is called a rupture and it occurs in the lower abdomen when a sac made from the membrane lining the abdominal wall and organs passes through the abdominal wall into the inguinal canal, an opening that leads into testes. Usually groin hernia presents with lump in the groin, felt all the time or only when straining. It often causes a dull ache that is worse with activity. The lump may get bigger with coughing or straining and shrink or disappear with lying down. The groin hernias are also divided into two anatomic variants, indirect and direct.

Indirect inguinal hernias

Are caused by a weakness in the abdominal wall that corresponds to an area where the testis descended into the scrotum during embryological development.

    Direct inguinal hernias

    Are the defects that result mainly from strain on the abdominal muscles which have been weakened by age. Inguinal hernias are ten times as common in men as in women.

    Femoral hernias

    Are more common in women, but are infrequent. The weakness in femoral hernias originates in the area where the major veins, arteries, and nerves pass from the abdomen into the lower extremities. A femoral bulge is always located in the upper inner part of the thigh, just below the groin crease. With rare exception, all hernias should be corrected surgically to prevent the possibilities of incarceration, intestinal obstruction, and strangulation.  

    Umbilical hernias

    Ap to a fifth of babies are born with a bulge through a defect at the site of the umbilical cord. The majority will close by themselves and they only occasionally need surgical repair if the hernia becomes excessively large or inflamed, or if it is still present by the age of about four. Adults also develop hernias in the region of the umbilicus. These are often associated with obesity, can be uncomfortable, and may become irreducible.

    Incisional hernias

    These hernias occur months or years after abdominal surgery and are common after such procedures as large bowel surgery in either sex, or hysterectomy in women. They are more common in obese patients or following a postoperative wound infection. They may become very large and unsightly. It is rarely to cause the bowel to obstruct and require emergency surgery. Today’s these are usually repaired with a la large piece of mesh, as there is a high recurrence rate after a sutured repair.
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